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We'll find out if the CMA agrees when it completes its in-depth, "Phase 2" investigation opens in new tab into the Activision Blizzard acquisition, which is some way off yet. For now, we'll have to content ourselves with poring over these kinds of corporate submissions for more interesting tidbits like this one. So far, we've already learned that Microsoft privately has a gloomy forecast for the future of cloud gaming opens in new tab , and that the company thinks Sony shouldn't worry so much since, hey, future COD games might be as underwhelming as Vanguard opens in new tab.
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For example, Pauline Peters argued that property systems are not isolable from the social fabric, and notions of property may not be stated as such but instead may be framed in negative terms: for example, the taboo system among Polynesian peoples. In medieval and Renaissance Europe the term "property" essentially referred to land.
After much rethinking, land has come to be regarded as only a special case of the property genus. This rethinking was inspired by at least three broad features of early modern Europe: the surge of commerce, the breakdown of efforts to prohibit interest then called " usury " , and the development of centralized national monarchies.
Urukagina , the king of the Sumerian city-state Lagash , established the first laws that forbade compelling the sale of property. The Bible in Leviticus and ibid. Aristotle , in Politics, advocates "private property. Everyone thinks chiefly of his own, hardly at all of the common interest, and only when he is himself concerned as an individual.
In addition, he says that when property is common, there are natural problems that arise due to differences in labor: "If they do not share equally enjoyments and toils, those who labor much and get little will necessarily complain of those who labor little and receive or consume much. But indeed, there is always a difficulty in men living together and having all human relations in common, but especially in their having common property.
Cicero held that there is no private property under natural law but only under human law. Ambrose later adopted this view and St. Augustine even derided heretics for complaining the Emperor could not confiscate property they had labored for. The canon law Decretum Gratiani maintained that mere human law creates property, repeating the phrases used by St.
Thomas Aquinas agreed with regard to the private consumption of property but modified patristic theory in finding that the private possession of property is necessary. The principal writings of Thomas Hobbes appeared between and —during and immediately following the war between forces loyal to King Charles I and those loyal to Parliament. In his own words, Hobbes' reflection began with the idea of "giving to every man his own," a phrase he drew from the writings of Cicero.
But he wondered: How can anybody call anything his own? He concluded: My own can only truly be mine if there is one unambiguously strongest power in the realm, and that power treats it as mine, protecting its status as such. A contemporary of Hobbes, James Harrington , reacted to the same tumult differently: he considered property natural but not inevitable. The author of " Oceana ," he may have been the first political theorist to postulate that political power is a consequence, not the cause, of the distribution of property.
He said that the worst possible situation is when the commoners have half a nation's property, with the crown and nobility holding the other half—a circumstance fraught with instability and violence. He suggested a much better situation a stable republic would exist once the commoners own most property. In later years, the ranks of Harrington's admirers included American revolutionary and founder John Adams. Filmer said that the institution of kingship is analogous to that of fatherhood, that subjects are still, children, whether obedient or unruly and that property rights are akin to the household goods that a father may dole out among his children—his to take back and dispose of according to his pleasure.
In the following generation, John Locke sought to answer Filmer, creating a rationale for a balanced constitution in which the monarch had a part to play, but not an overwhelming part. Since Filmer's views essentially require that the Stuart family be uniquely descended from the patriarchs of the Bible , and even in the late 17th century, that was a difficult view to uphold, Locke attacked Filmer's views in his First Treatise on Government , freeing him to set out his own views in the Second Treatise on Civil Government.
Therein, Locke imagined a pre-social world each of the unhappy residents which are willing to create a social contract because otherwise, "the enjoyment of the property he has in this state is very unsafe, very insecure," and therefore, the "great and chief end, therefore, of men's uniting into commonwealths, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property. Even when it keeps to proper legislative form, Locke held that there are limits to what a government established by such a contract might rightly do.
Whereas by supposing they have given themselves up to the absolute arbitrary power and will of a legislator, they have disarmed themselves, and armed him to make a prey of them when he pleases Both "persons" and "estates" are to be protected from the arbitrary power of any magistrate, including legislative power and will. In neither case are subjects required to allow themselves to become prey. To explain the ownership of property, Locke advanced a labor theory of property.
In contrast to the figures discussed in this section thus far David Hume lived a relatively quiet life that had settled down to a relatively stable social and political structure. He lived the life of a solitary writer until when, at 52 years of age, he went off to Paris to work at the British embassy. In contrast, one might think to his polemical works on religion and his empiricism -driven skeptical epistemology , Hume's views on law and property were quite conservative.
He did not believe in hypothetical contracts or the love of humanity in general and sought to ground politics upon actual human beings as one knows them. With this endorsement of custom comes an endorsement of existing governments because he conceived of the two as complementary: "A regard for liberty , though a laudable passion, ought commonly to be subordinate to a reverence for established government.
Therefore, Hume's view was that there are property rights because of and to the extent that the existing law, supported by social customs, secure them.
The inheritance of a poor man lies in the strength and dexterity of his hands, and to hinder him from employing this strength and dexterity in what manner he thinks proper without injury to his neighbor, is a plain violation of this most sacred property. It is a manifest encroachment upon the just liberty of the workman and those who might be disposed to employ him. It hinders the one from working at what he thinks proper, so it hinders the others from employing whom they think proper.
To judge whether he is fit to be employed may surely be trusted to the discretion of the employers whose interest it so much concerns. The affected anxiety of the law-giver lest they should employ an improper person is as impertinent as it is oppressive.
By the mid 19th century, the industrial revolution had transformed England and the United States and had begun in France. As a result, the conventional conception of what constitutes property expanded beyond land to encompass scarce goods. In France, the revolution of the s had led to large-scale confiscation of land formerly owned by the church and king. The restoration of the monarchy led to claims by those dispossessed to have their former lands returned.
Section VIII, " Primitive Accumulation " of Capital involves a critique of Liberal Theories of property rights. Marx notes that under Feudal Law, peasants were legally entitled to their land as the aristocracy was to its manors.
Marx cites several historical events in which large numbers of the peasantry were removed from their lands, then seized by the nobility.
This seized land was then used for commercial ventures sheep herding. Marx sees this "Primitive Accumulation" as integral to the creation of English Capitalism. This event created a sizeable un-landed class that had to work for wages to survive. Marx asserts that liberal theories of property are "idyllic" fairy tales that hide a violent historical process.
Charles Comte , in "Traité de la propriété" , attempted to justify the legitimacy of private property in response to the Bourbon Restoration. According to David Hart, Comte had three main points: "firstly, that interference by the state over the centuries in property ownership has had dire consequences for justice as well as for economic productivity; secondly, that property is legitimate when it emerges in such a way as not to harm anyone; and thirdly, that historically some, but by no means all, property which has evolved has done so legitimately, with the implication that the present distribution of property is a complex mixture of legitimately and illegitimately held titles.
Comte, as Proudhon later did, rejected Roman legal tradition with its toleration of slavery. Instead, he posited a communal "national" property consisting of non-scarce goods, such as land in ancient hunter-gatherer societies.
Since agriculture was so much more efficient than hunting and gathering, private property appropriated by someone for farming left remaining hunter-gatherers with more land per person and hence did not harm them. Thus this type of land appropriation did not violate the Lockean proviso — there was "still enough, and as good left. In his treatise What is Property? In natural resources, he sees two types of property, de jure property legal title and de facto property physical possession , and argues that the former is illegitimate.
Proudhon's conclusion is that "property, to be just and possible, must necessarily have equality for its condition. His analysis of the product of labor upon natural resources as property usufruct is more nuanced. He asserts that land itself cannot be property, yet it should be held by individual possessors as stewards of humanity, with the product of labor being the producer's property.
Proudhon reasoned that any wealth gained without labor was stolen from those who labored to create that wealth. Even a voluntary contract to surrender the product of work to an employer was theft, according to Proudhon, since the controller of natural resources had no moral right to charge others for the use of that which he did not labor to create did not own.
Proudhon's theory of property greatly influenced the budding socialist movement, inspiring anarchist theorists such as Mikhail Bakunin who modified Proudhon's ideas, as well as antagonizing theorists like Karl Marx.
Frédéric Bastiat 's main treatise on property can be found in chapter 8 of his book "Economic Harmonies" Thus, saying one owns a glass of water is merely verbal shorthand for "I may justly gift or trade this water to another person. By "value," Bastiat means "market value"; he emphasizes this is quite different from utility.
Bastiat theorized that, as a result of technological progress and the division of labor, the stock of communal wealth increases over time; that the hours of work an unskilled laborer expends to buy e. The increasing proportion of communal wealth to private property results in a tendency toward equality of humanity. This transformation of private property into the communal domain, Bastiat points out, does not imply that personal property will ever totally disappear.
On the contrary, this is because man, as he progresses, continually invents new and more sophisticated needs and desires. Andrew J. Galambos — was an astrophysicist and philosopher who innovated a social structure that sought to maximize human peace and freedom.
Galambos' concept of property was essential to his philosophy. He defined property as a man's life and all non-procreative derivatives of his life. Because the English language is deficient in omitting the feminine from "man" when referring to humankind, it is implicit and obligatory that the feminine is included in the term "man. Galambos taught that property is essential to a non-coercive social structure. Property includes all non-procreative derivatives of an individual's life; this means children are not the property of their parents.
Galambos repeatedly emphasized that actual government exists to protect property and that the State attacks property. For example, the State requires payment for its services in the form of taxes whether or not people desire such services. Since an individual's money is his property, the confiscation of money in the form of taxes is an attack on property.
Military conscription is likewise an attack on a person's primordial property. Contemporary political thinkers who believe that natural persons enjoy rights to own property and enter into contracts espouse two views about John Locke. On the one hand, some admire Locke, such as William H. Hutt , who praised Locke for laying down the "quintessence of individualism. Pipes has written that Locke's work "marked a regression because it rested on the concept of Natural Law " rather than upon Harrington's sociological framework.
Hernando de Soto has argued that an essential characteristic of the capitalist market economy is the functioning state protection of property rights in a formal property system which records ownership and transactions. These property rights and the whole legal system of property make possible:. According to de Soto, all of the above enhance economic growth. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Entity owned by a person or a group of people.
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Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Title property , Business , and Security. Main article: Ownership. Main article: Property is theft! Allemansrätten Anarchism Binary economics Buying agent Capitalism Communism Homestead principle Immovable property Inclusive Democracy International Property Rights Index Labor theory of property Land economics Libertarianism Lien Off plan Ownership society Patrimony Personal property Propertarian Property is theft Property law Property rights economics Socialism Sovereignty Taxation as theft Interpersonal relationship Public liability.
Charity Essenes Gift Kibbutz Monasticism Tithe , Zakat modern sense. Adverse possession Confiscation Eminent domain Fine Jizya Nationalization Regulatory fees and costs Search and seizure Tariff Tax Turf and twig historical Tithe , Zakat historical sense RS In Wolf, Michael Alan ed. Powell on Real Property. New Providence, NJ.
ISBN Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First Century. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. There are three broad forms of property ownership-private, public, and collective cooperative. Institute of Rural Management Anand. Retrieved 26 October Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value. New York: Palgrave.
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